Top trends in the food industry right now

The food sector is ever-changing and has completely evolved over the past two years following the shift to home working, which altered consumer habits and food choices.

It can be hard to stand out from the crowd, as well as meeting the needs of today’s consumers, so to give you some inspiration we’ve complied a few trends that are dominating the market and are here to stay.

Environmentally sustainable

With the fast pace of change across the sector, there is more demand for transparency on where ingredients are sourced from and the impact on the environment – 67% of UK adults say that it’s important to have a healthy diet for both themselves and the planet*.

More companies are making the shift towards sustainable operations and using creative ways to communicate it. Whether it’s removing plastic from all packaging, becoming net carbon zero or adapting recipes to contain less fat, sugar and salt.

Colour is key

Poke bowls, rainbow salads and pink burger buns are just a few food trends that have taken over our social channels as consumers opt for vibrant, ‘Instagrammable’ food.

Colours attract attention and help products stand out on shelves, with people gravitating towards bolder, brighter shades to reflect optimism and excitement as life returns to normality.

We’re seeing brands tapping into cultural moods and trending flavours, with sour and exotic choices on the rise like passionfruit, as well as nostalgic flavour iced caramel latte, as consumers look for comforting experiences. Health and wellbeing are also still top of mind, with popular and immune-boosting ingredients matcha, turmeric and ginger making an appearance.

Plant-based remains on top

The rise of the plant-based movement continues, from nut butters to meat substitutes and this year’s biggest trend is fish alternatives as brands look to take vegan and vegetarian products to the next level.

The best way to create a buzz around your brand is to know your audience and connect with them, to help elevate your products, with shareable storytelling content.

Incorporating these trends into your business will help to get your brand noticed, opening up more engagement and reaching more audiences.

Do you need help elevating your brand? Get in touch and to see how you can make the most out of your PR strategy via our email hello@jenniehollandpr.co.uk or call us on 0115 998 3048.

*https://store.mintel.com/report/uk-attitudes-towards-healthy-eating-market-report

JHPR Update: Promotions and new starters

Our digital PR agency is experiencing a significant period of growth and we have lots to share with you.

First up, we are celebrating two promotions, with both Elyssia and Alice progressing to
the roles of senior digital PR executives.

Since joining us last year, Alice and Elyssia have demonstrated passion and dedication in their work and continually strive to keep learning and innovating for the good of our client campaigns.

Well done both!

With a number of new client wins we are also expanding our team. Super pleased to share that Paige Wykes and Laura Markham have joined us as digital PR executives.

Paige joins us from a marketing and social media role having graduated with a degree in BA (Hons) Journalism with creative & professional writing, and Laura has just graduated with a BA (Hons) degree in International Fashion Business and returns to JHPR after completing an internship in last year.

Both will specialise in social media management and press outreach.

Our execs join us at a time of growth, as we welcome new clients from a range of sectors, stemming from legal to recruitment and property to food and drink.

Calling all PR pros – we are hiring!

If you are passionate about and skilled in all things PR, then we’d like to meet you! We’re looking for a talented PR Account Manager and a Senior PR Account Executive to join our team.

We are a boutique agency in the heart of Nottingham’s Lace Market in the city centre, with coffee, cake, access to the shops and everything else you could wish for during the working day right on your doorstep.

Our environment is creative, inclusive and supportive of talent and progression, and we work smart and celebrate success (both work and personal). We offer flexible working with a blend of home and office days and additional annual leave days for keeping the mind happy, as well as team outings.

In your role you will be working alongside the wider team on a varied portfolio of great brands, across a number of sectors – and we can guarantee no day with be the same!

If you are looking for an opportunity to use your skills and creativity to wow our clients and make a real difference to their businesses, then this is the role for you.

We offer progression, ongoing training and development, and a fun place to work where you can thrive. There are no big agency politics or the ‘sink or swim’ approach. Here you are a key member of our team and will be supported.

An overview of the roles is below – please visit Indeed for full details on the PR Account Manager role and Senior PR Account Executive role. 


PR Account Manager job description:

– Deliver PR strategies and campaigns across an exciting mix of b2b and b2c brands, with the support of an account director and account executive

– Client management and communication

– Creating optimised media content including press releases and features

– Plus other content such as blogs, web copy, award applications, video

– Media relations and press office activities

– Keeping fully informed of the national and international news agenda and trends and identifying media opportunities for clients

– Working with online influencers

– Social media strategy, content and management

– Online community management to build quality followers and create engaged online communities

– Managing and mentoring an account executive

Experience, skills and attributes required:

– Three plus years of experience working in a similar role

– Working in a PR or press team (ideally agency but also in-house)

– A track record of delivering quality media results for clients

– Plenty of press release and other content creation

– Managing social media accounts and delivering campaigns

– Comprehensive understanding of and a passion for social media – the features and opportunities they present

– Digitally minded and driven

– Confident communicator with clients, journalists and others

– Enthusiastic and organised self-starter with lots of creative ideas

– A relevant degree such as PR/marketing/journalism/communications/business

– Salary is dependent on experience and attitude.

Hours: 37 per week

Job Types: Full-time, Part-time, Permanent

Benefits:

  • Additional leave
  • Casual dress
  • Company events
  • Company pension
  • On-site parking
  • Sick pay
  • Wellness programmes
  • Work from home

Schedule: Monday to Friday

Experience: Public Relations: 3 years (preferred)

Work remotely: Yes


Senior PR Account Executive job description:

– Deliver PR strategies and campaigns across an exciting mix of b2b and b2c brands, with the support of a senior account manager

– Client liaison

– Media liaison

– Creating optimised media content including press releases and features

– Plus other content such as blogs, web copy, award applications, video

– Media relations and press office activities

– Keeping fully informed of the national and international news agenda and trends and identifying media opportunities for clients

– Working with online influencers

– Social media content and management

– Developing optimised social media content, organic and paid

– Online community management to build quality followers and create engaged online communities

– Media and social media analysis and results reporting

Experience and skills required:

– 1-2 years of experience working in a similar role

– A track record of delivering PR strategies for clients

– Digitally minded and driven

– Confident communicator and an excellent writer

– Enthusiastic and organised self-starter with lots of creative ideas

– A relevant degree such as PR/marketing/journalism/communications/business/other

– Social media content creation; organic and paid

– Track record of managing social media accounts and delivering campaigns

– Comprehensive understanding of and a passion for social media – the features and opportunities presented by a range of channels

– Salary dependent on experience and attitude.

Job Types: Full-time, Permanent

Benefits:

  • Additional leave
  • Casual dress
  • Company events
  • Sick pay
  • Work from home

Schedule: Monday to Friday

Experience: Public Relations: 2 years (preferred)


To start your journey with us, please send your CV to hello@jenniehollandpr.com.

How work experience can help you on your career path

Graduating is such a minefield and can be a really daunting time. I have experienced this intimidating unknown twice now. I finished my undergraduate degree in the summer of 2020, which was overwhelming for obvious reasons. And while I knew everyone else was in the same position, it was difficult to not compare myself to those (and only those) who seemed to have their whole life sorted.

Now, I am facing my second experience of graduating. I am at the end of my Broadcast Journalism MA at Nottingham Trent University, a course that I applied to after the pandemic panic took a firm hold of me the first time around.

I knew I wanted to go into media and I figured by gaining more skills and experience in the subject, I would be in a better position a year on. And I definitely am. I am so grateful and glad I took the opportunity to pursue a Masters because I have learnt so many transferrable skills. So, what is the next step for me?

This choice can be huge and frightening, which is why I endorse anyone who wants to do work experience.

Gaining valuable professional experience is a fantastic way to learn more about not only your chosen sector but also yourself and how you work best; your preferred ways to work, your favoured tasks, your passions and what excites you. A placement can be the step you need to make sure that the direction you’re going in is right for you. While academic experience is extremely valuable in so many ways, I think it misses the mark on the learning you can do in a professional setting.

For me, my time at JHPR has shown me how creative and exciting the industry can be and how creativity is something I definitely need in my future career.

For example, I love how social media is all about the users’ and customers’ experience, and how impactful this can be for a business. I spent a lot of time creating social media content during my work experience, contributing to clients’ overall business strategies, considering target audiences and tailoring my work according to each platform. It’s highly rewarding to see the process from start to finish – planning content, writing, creating artwork, scheduling and monitoring, and seeing how well our content performs.

Not only was my time at JHPR valuable in terms of learning about the industry, but I learned so much from being a part of the lovely JHPR team. My ideas and questions were always encouraged and welcomed, and I was trusted and supported in trying different tasks for a variety of sectors, from writing press releases and listicles, to writing and scheduling social media posts.

If I can pass any wisdom on to other students and graduates who are currently wading through the uncertainty is that you can only benefit from a placement.

You will learn and develop the skills you already have and it will give you the confidence you need for your next step. Do research into the sector beforehand so you have an idea of what the placement will bring but also to ensure it’s a sector you see yourself going into. And finally, make the most of your work experience, learn as much as you can, ask lots of questions, and enjoy!

Interested in applying for work experience at JHPR? We’d love to hear from you! Send us an email with a few details about yourself, what you’re studying and why would you like to join us to hello@jenniehollandpr.co.uk

By Lucy Hilton

What is Influencer Marketing: How can I use it to increase sales?

Whether you’ve been inspired to DIY your home, recreate a recipe or even purchase a new wardrobe, these days we are all pretty familiar with the power of being influenced and how it can subconsciously shape our spending habits and perception of brands and products.

From mummy bloggers to business experts and from tech bloggers to beauty vloggers, influencer marketing has become one of the fastest-growing online customer acquisition channels and is expected to hit £11 billion by 2022*.

Getting started with influencer marketing can seem daunting so we have created this guide to help.

Want to get started and see the incredible results influencer marketing can bring to your business but don’t want to go it alone? Contact us and we can guide you through this hugely impactful and exciting part of marketing.

What is influencer marketing?

In short, influencer marketing is a form of social media marketing which partners influencers and brands together. Being experts in their fields, influencers consistently interact with their dedicated social following through product reviews, brand endorsements and creating engaging content which is often personal life experiences. A recent survey showed that 80% of consumers have purchased something via an influencer recommendation* … the numbers speak for themselves and the opportunities of influencer marketing are endless.

How can it help my business?

  • High return on investment
  • Reaches target audiences
  • Builds trust with customers
  • Improves brand awareness
  • Encourages brand loyalty
  • Boosts audience engagement
  • Enriches brand content

Influencer costs

Influencer costs can vary widely. The question is not about whether you should or shouldn’t pay, but how. Some influencers are happy to receive gifting in exchange for a social posts or reviews and others require a budget, in which case some things to consider would be their previous campaign performance and standard influencer rates. Establishing these costs early on will save time later down the line.

How to create an influencer brief (your brief to the influencer you are going to work with)

First and foremost, when creating your brief, keep your goals in mind and don’t be afraid to get visual as this will be beneficial to your influencer when you reach out to them. Be sure to include important background information as well as campaign details.

How to find the right influencer

Now you are ready to set out on your influencer search. The best place to start is to ask yourself the following: Who are my target audiences and which influencers do my target audiences follow? Are these influencers truly ‘influential’? Do they have any conflicting campaigns or collaborations?

This will give you a clearer picture of the type of influencers you want to work with and if the partnership would be authentic.

Once you have collated your shortlist of influencers, take time to monitor how their community engages and responds to their content. Don’t shy away from asking for their engagement rates when you outreach, as this can often determine the success of your partnership.

How to measure influencer marketing success

Much like any strategy, measuring the success of your campaign is vital. Ensure you check the key analytics:

  • What was the reach?
  • How many likes did the content receive?
  • What was the sentiment of the comments?
  • How many saves did it achieve?

After this information has been gathered, it will provide a clear idea of the campaign’s overall performance and success.

The value of influencer marketing is undeniable and there has never been a better time to get started. Contact our team at Jennie Holland PR for a chat on how influencer marketing could work for your next project.

Sources

* https://digitalmarketinginstitute.com/blog/team-talk-how-influencer-marketing-is-changing-the-game

** https://startupbonsai.com/influencer-marketing-statistics/

Waste Not, Want Not: Plastic Free July

It can be tricky to get in the mindset to make changes in our daily routines when we are so used to doing things a certain way. But when it comes to the planet, if we don’t start altering our lifestyles and habits now, the consequences of our actions will be irreversible.

In light of the world’s climate emergency and that this month is officially Plastic Free July, we wanted to compile a list of easy ways we all can make a change at home and in our daily lives.

Did you know …

97% of the world’s water is held by the ocean, yet 88% of the sea’s surface is polluted by plastic waste, and plastic has only really been widely used for the last 70 years. 8 million pieces of plastic make their way into our oceans every day. 100,000 marine animals die from plastic pollution every year. 381 million tonnes of plastic waste is produced by the world annually, and is set to double by 2034. The UK exports more than two and half Olympic swimming pools of plastic waste every day. It takes roughly 500 years for plastic to decompose. It is estimated that 5.25 trillion macro and micro pieces of plastic are currently floating in the open ocean, with 46,000 pieces in every square mile, weighing up to 269,000 tonnes *.

It makes for very depressing reading.

269,000 tonnes is about the weight of 38,000 African elephants. It is also the equivalent distance from Earth to the Moon and back if you were to stack two-litre bottles on top of each other … twice over **.

It takes a few minutes, doesn’t it, for all of that to sink in? It certainly did for us. Especially when you think about the fact that we eat the fish, that eats the plastic…

Like many, we’re passionate about nature and our environment and are doing what we think we should, but we are by no means perfect. We have more to do. The more we talk about it, the more we are motivated to take action.

Before the COVID-19 pandemic, we organised a litter pick in Nottingham which saw groups head out across four routes in and around the city. We were supported by Nottingham City Council and many of our clients and contacts jumped at the chance to take part. We were astonished at how much rubbish we collected from pavements and footpaths in just a couple of hours. When all restrictions lift, we will be organising more of these in Nottingham and the wider East Midlands. Do let us know if you would like to be involved.

So, as we mark Plastic Free July this month, we as a team are committing to the below. Why not join us?

1. Use reusable coffee cups

2. Only use reusable shopping bags

3. Refuse plastic straws

4. Avoid bottled water

5. Recycle as much as possible at home and in the office

6. Do our own litter picks where we live

7. Buy plastic-free toiletries and swap liquid soap for bars of soap

8. Avoid buying groceries that are pre-packaged in plastic

9. Prepare lunch as much as possible to avoid buying plastic wrapped fast food

10. Share our efforts with friends and family, and actively encourage others to make changes too

For more information about Plastic Free July and how you can get involved, click the link here: https://www.plasticfreejuly.org/

Sources:
*https://www.condorferries.co.uk/plastic-in-the-ocean-statistics, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/article/150109-oceans-plastic-sea-trash-science-marine-debris, https://www.wwf.org.au/news/blogs/the-lifecycle-of-plastics#gs.5uy9ir, https://www.greenpeace.org.uk/resources/pledge-to-tackle-plastic-pollution/#:~:text=The%20UK%20exports%20more%20than,by%20no%20later%20than%202025, https://www.sas.org.uk/our-work/plastic-pollution/plastic-pollution-facts-figures/ https://www.cbsnews.com/news/worlds-oceans-plagued-by-269000-tons-of-plastic-pollution/, https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0111913
**https://www.cbsnews.com/news/worlds-oceans-plagued-by-269000-tons-of-plastic-pollution/, https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0111913

My journey into the PR industry– don’t panic if you don’t find your career straight away

I have been working at Jennie Holland PR for a month now and time has indeed flown by! I always had a feeling that I would work in PR – I love people, words, and being creative, and PR absolutely encompasses all of these things.

Ever since I undertook work experience at Jennie Holland PR a few years ago, the MD Jennie and I both said we felt our paths would cross again, and here I am! It is funny how life works out sometimes.

I have however been on quite the rollercoaster ride up until now. I have had seven different jobs since I was 18, ranging from bartending to being a receptionist, to delivering post for Royal Mail over lockdown – what a busy Christmas that was!

I have also attained two degrees: a BA in English Language and Linguistics and an MA in Broadcast Journalism. And yet, as I was turning 25 this year, I had not yet begun my ‘career’, I was starting to panic! Looking back, there was no need. We all have a different journey into a career, and I now have the benefit of a few years of ‘life’ experience from varying, customer facing roles.

However, the prospect of starting a career can be terrifying when you don’t know exactly what you want to do or where you want to be, or where you see yourself in ten years’ time. There are so many questions we are told to ask ourselves before we embark on our journey of higher education and then employment.

Since starting my new job here at digital PR agency Jennie Holland PR, I have realised how much time I have spent in recent months thinking instead of just doing, and the thing I have come to realise is, you never really know a lot about anything until you try. I spent a lot of time post-MA thinking that as I had an MA in journalism, following a path in journalism was surely what was expected of me? But truth is, my heart was in PR! And now I am here, I am thrilled.

The team at Jennie Holland PR have really welcomed me with open arms and the office is such a lovely environment to work in – it’s always a fabulous day when the boss walks in with iced coffees! We have such a range of clients and I am looking forward to getting to know everyone properly as we continue working together. Like any new job, there is a lot of new information to take in but I have learnt so much already and I am excited for what lies ahead.

Having a background in broadcast journalism is actually incredibly relatable to PR – I loved many aspects of my MA so it feels great to be able to transfer some of my skills. As I have worked on the news/press side of things, I have a good understanding of what journalists are looking for from our content, and I have a good knowledge of things that require close attention, such as triple checking facts and sources, grammar, copyright of photos, and accuracy of quotes.

I also enjoy thinking about how stories can be approached from a different, perhaps more original and engaging angle. PR is heavily people orientated too and I have a lot of experience chatting with people on the phone, setting up and conducting interviews, and working in a team. I am also excited to exercise some of my digital and editing skills to help clients build their brands – bring it on!

By Alice Cammell

The ever-evolving skills of PR and marketing are in high demand

We’ve covered the changing landscape of public relations, marketing and communications a few times during the pandemic, highlighting ways in which brands can bolster identity, voice and reputation through what has been a challenging period for many businesses, both large and small.

But what happens now that high streets and venues up and down the country are reopening and companies are getting back on track with previously delayed plans?

Despite the pandemic, data from LinkedIn shows that marketers are more in demand than ever, which is testament to the fact that brands are recognising the need to differentiate from competitors, as companies vie to hold on to valued customers and attract new ones.

There has been a 63% increase in marketing roles advertised on LinkedIn during the last six months, with companies turning to remote professionals and agencies that can offer a flexible approach to helping reach more customers and spread positive news and post-pandemic plans.

With brands looking to recover from a difficult and highly unpredictable 2020, it’s no surprise that 2021 has seen a significant shift in businesses looking to PR and marketing professionals for innovative ways to stand out from the crowd.

It’s good news for budding PR pros wishing to get into the industry and start their careers – with so much opportunity out there, and it’s a great time to develop and expand skill bases and work with companies of all sizes across multiple sectors.

Education, retail and hospitality are among the top fields ramping up marketing activity more than ever before, as well as property and construction, heritage, legal and HR businesses that have been affected by a drop off in demand over lockdown.

At Jennie Holland PR, we’re proud to work with a number of exciting companies in different sectors including lifestyle, property, food and drink, heritage and architecture. We have been extremely busy creating and driving communications activities for brands throughout the pandemic so that news, products and services remain at the forefront of our clients’ customers’ minds.

What’s more, we’re hiring! We’re looking for talented and motivated individuals to join our team, from PR executives through to PR managers. If you’re looking to use your skills, achieve amazing results, progress your career and have fun within a friendly team, send your CV to hello@jenniehollandpr.com.

Delving into the PR industry – what I’ve learned during my time at Jennie Holland PR

In March 2021, I was fortunately presented with the opportunity to get a taste of the PR industry to kickstart what I hope turns out to be a successful career!

Alongside studying fashion marketing and branding at Nottingham Trent University, I have just completed a nine-week internship at Jennie Holland PR, a boutique digital PR agency in the heart of Nottingham city. The experience has been truly invaluable, teaching me many skills I will continue to use to develop throughout my professional career.

I have always been interested in delving into the world of PR, as writing is a huge passion of mine and has been since I was young. I love how it gives me the ability to express my creative flair, and during my internship, I was able to try lots of different writing styles to develop my current skillset.

I worked on a range of clients across a multitude of sectors, which enabled me to switch between different tones and content when writing. From drafting social posts for architecture firms, to creating press releases for home improvement companies; I have thoroughly enjoyed exploring a wide range of styles.

At Jennie Holland PR no day would ever be the same – from drafting social posts, to blogs, listicle stories to carrying out research tasks – I was given a variety of tasks to be creative with which helped me grow in confidence and gave me a good insight into daily agency life.

I believe that working within a smaller company gave me a good chance to be immersed within the industry and I had many opportunities to try things out and was given independence when completing tasks set. This creative freedom has been so beneficial, as I have been able to demonstrate the skills I have to offer, whilst receiving valuable feedback in order to improve and develop in the future.

My time here has allowed me to enhance many of my interpersonal skills also – including my organisational & communication skills, level of professionalism, and capability to prioritise work.

I began my internship working in the office for three days, and remotely for two – although for the last few weeks, I was in the office full time socially distanced. Working within an office environment has allowed me to receive a well-rounded experience, and has given me access to really see behind the scenes of this fast-paced industry.

I also feel that the initial working from home/office split allowed me to adapt to a hybrid working model, which I believe is important to get a taste of moving forward from the pandemic.

Whilst I was incredibly nervous stepping into the office on my first day as I had never worked in a PR agency beforehand, I was instantly greeted with a warm welcome, and felt a part of the team in no time.

Alongside receiving a great amount of support and guidance from the team, I have also built great relationships with them – through after work outings and the barrels of laughs we had in the office, I sincerely hope these friendships will continue to grow once my time at JHPR has come to an end.

My advice to anyone who is looking to gain experience within the PR industry would be to completely immerse yourself within the job, show passion, and be willing to learn – this way you will also receive more responsibility and independence when doing tasks.

Lockdown 3.0 and the property market – should the stamp duty holiday be extended?

Despite the uncertainty of the last few months, as well as the government announcing a third lockdown at the start of the year – the property market is one sector that remains strong and buoyant in a period of economic turbulence.

As PR specialists based in the East Midlands, we work with many clients across the country in the property and construction industry, keeping up to date with the latest market news and monitoring its overall performance and ups and downs, to ensure we provide the best service for our clients.

In 2020, chancellor Rishi Sunak announced a stamp duty holiday until 31 March 2021, its aim, to increase public demand for housing and help buyers cut some of the costs associated with getting onto the housing ladder. These efforts to boost the sale of properties during a difficult period proved to be much-needed fuel for the economy.

Moving house during lockdown
Image: www.pexels.com

During the changing lockdown restrictions and circumstances of 2020, the housing market initially suffered a slump during the second quarter when it came to a halt. Following the reopening of the market, pent-up demand saw house prices and sales rise rapidly as people looked to buy and sell quickly and take advantage of the time-limited stamp duty holiday in order to save money.

House prices have since seen a dramatic climb over the last few months – the highest ever in fact – with the average house price in the UK now at a record £253,374*.

As the March 2021 stamp duty holiday deadline looms closer, leading property experts and businesses are calling for the government to extend the holiday to take the third lockdown into account and further drive forward the market.

The positives of extending the incentive would benefit prospective homebuyers and the market as a whole, and given the current lockdown, an extension may be the slice of good news buyers need to take the plunge and complete house purchases.

Despite the housing market adopting a position of ‘business as usual’, the restrictions on staying at home mean that transactions are taking longer – with people unable to complete and submit paperwork quickly, and estate agents, brokers, solicitors and lenders working from home and having to adapt to new methods and practices to accommodate the demand from customers.

Therefore, an extension of the stamp duty holiday would ease some of this pressure, allowing more time for transactions to be completed.

Though there has been some criticism towards the stamp duty holiday, with experts claiming that it may have hindered some buyers from purchasing a home rather than helping them, there is no doubt that the incentive was always designed to be a temporary fix to bolster the market, which seems to have been effective on the whole.

As one of the biggest drivers of the economy, it is seen by many in the industry as vital that the government extends the scheme once more, as we potentially face many more months of national economic instability.

Jennie Holland PR has extensive experience and expertise working with dynamic companies in the property, construction and law industries, including FHP Living, G F Tomlinson, JMP Solicitors, Taggart Homes, ALB Group, Influence, Howard Ward Associates and Land & New Homes Network. We implement targeted PR and digital marketing strategies to bolster your brands online and offline presence; by securing articles with backlinks in high domain authority media and providing a result-driven social media management service.

We can help you become famous amongst your target audiences. Contact us today to start your new year PR journey and let’s meet those targets together in 2021.

*https://www.express.co.uk/finance/personalfinance/1381445/house-prices-rishi-sunak-extend-stamp-duty-deadline